A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye; cataract surgery is performed to improve vision by replacing the clouded lens with an artificial one. Cataracts affect millions of people in the United States each year. Most cataracts are the result of aging, though some form as a result of genetic factors, disease or injury. Cataract surgery is common, and considered safe and effective.
Glaucoma is a group of related diseases that damage the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss and possible blindness. Glaucoma, a leading cause of blindness and visual impairment in the United States, can affect patients of all ages. Many people affected with glaucoma do not experience any symptoms and may not be aware that they have the disease until they have lost a significant amount of vision.
Keratoplasty, or corneal transplantation, is performed when the curvature of the cornea (the transparent covering on the eye’s anterior wall) is too steep or too flat to be treated with other methods, when extensive damage has occurred due to injury or disease, or when a tumor is present. Traditional keratoplasty is a procedure that removes and replaces the cornea with donor tissue.